This is because it gives you the chance to respond to your readers objections before they have finished reading.
Give reasons why someone might actually hold that view.
The examples below are ideas that you might use as a counter-argument to this claim, in a paper agreeing with Loewen.
Then you would The factual assumption in this example is that racism is a thing of the past.
Therefore, the fact that they didnt learn about the causes of racism, together with this other information, actually supports the claim that students need to learn what causes racism.
(Here again theres a faulty assumption, implied but not stated: Previous generations supposedly did function adequately in civic life.This is a very common form of counter-argument, one that actually rebuts a different argument.(Note that here, too, theres a faulty assumption: being The response here would be to show that previous generations did not function adequately in civic life, because they had a lot of problems with racism (segregation and more hidden forms of discrimination).The key is to base your arguments on values that it.You might be very familiar with racism but still not know what causes it.Obviously, if you really believe the position expressed in your thesis, you will not be able to be completely objective in how you express the counter-argumentbut you should try.One of the most common purposes of counter-argument is to address positions that many people hold but that you think are mistaken.(Another assumption in this argument is that its not good to make students racist.Loewens argument shares this assumption, so you wouldnt rebut it.) Top This counter-argument is based on an assumed value that your readers probably do not sharenamely, the idea that its ok for students to be racist.And some counter-arguments actually make your argument stronger, once you analyze their logic.All of these examples use a claim from James Loewens book, In that book Loewen makes the claim that To function adequately in civic life students must learn what causes racism (143).