Over 90% of the known rhinovirus (RV) serotypes of the (humanrhinovirus) HRV-A and B families utilize ICAM-1 as their cell entry receptor, while the ruinor group receptor, low density lipoprptein (LDL), is used by 10 serotypes, causing neutrophilic inflammatory response associated with increased vascular permeability and stimulation of mucus secretion (15,16).
Over 90% of the known rhinovirus (RV) serotypes of the (humanrhinovirus) HRV-A and B families utilize ICAM-1 as their cell entry receptor, while the ruinor group receptor, low density lipoprptein (LDL), is used by 10 serotypes, causing neutrophilic inflammatory response associated with increased vascular permeability and stimulation of mucus secretion (15,16).Tags: Critical Thinking Learning StylesGay Marriage EssaysGlobal Warming Kids EssayBusiness Plan For Organic FarmingEssays.OrgType Of Research Papers
The epidemic finally ends with a small wave of rhinovirus infections in April.
Viral transmission may occur via inhalation of small particle aerosols, deposition of large particle droplets on nasal or conjunctival mucosa, or direct transfer via hand-to-hand contact. In a study investigating finger microbiology during daily public procedures, virus has been shown to be very efficiently transferred from hand-to-hand minimal contact, surface material, ventilation and human behavior (11).
In the absence of pre-existing humoral immunity RV infection will cause an induction in innate immune response with the appearence of type 1 interferon (20). A comparison of the effect of honey, dextrometorphan, and no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. BTS guidelines: Recomendations for the assessment and management of cough in children.
Consistent with the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results, epithelial eosinophils and neutrophil counts are increased in subjects with asthma when compared with normal subjects during acute RV infection (21).
The prevalance of drug use in children is still as high as P in viral infections.
In 2011 very well known drugs for cough and common cold were taken off the markets for they had not been FDA (Food and Drug Admnistration) approved (6).This season for common cold epidemic begins with the predominance in rhinovirus infections in September (10).Parainfluenza virus is most commonly seen in October or second half of fall.RSVand influenza viruses are most commonly seen starting from december to april.Adenovirus infections are continuously present at a low rate throughout the cold season.Substantial titers of respiratory viruses are pesent in innate surfaces and also survive up to several days (12,13).The host epithelial barriers and both innate and adaptive immune responses influence the reaction of the host (14).Although infections of the upper respiratory tract often resolve completely without complications, treatment is indicated where it can achieve more rapid resolution of symptoms and prevent the complications.Vast amounts of money are wasted on over-the-counter products for colds.Rhinovirus, RSV, Influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and adenovirus are the most common causative organisms for common cold in pre-school children (7).Rhinoviruses are responsible for at least 50 percent of colds in both children and adults.