Rationality and logic are still widely accepted in many circles as the primary examples of critical thinking. Walters (Re-thinking Reason, 1994) argues that rationality demands more than just logical or traditional methods of problem solving and analysis or what he calls the "calculus of justification" but also considers "cognitive acts such as imagination, conceptual creativity, intuition and insight" (p. These "functions" are focused on discovery, on more abstract processes instead of linear, rules-based approaches to problem-solving.
The linear and non-sequential mind must both be engaged in the rational mind.
He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.
He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.
In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency.
Critical Thinking Assessment Tool
Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge. It is interesting to note that the ANA (American Nursing Association) Standards have set forth the framework necessary for critical thinking in the application of the “nursing process." Unfortunately this framework can be executed superficially or substantively, as can any such framework.We believe that skilled nursing depends upon a well-reasoned philosophy of nursing rooted in a deep and rich conception of critical thinking.2,500 years ago who discovered by a method of probing questioning that people could not rationally justify their confident claims to knowledge.Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: Contemporary critical thinking scholars have expanded these traditional definitions to include qualities, concepts, and processes such as creativity, imagination, discovery, reflection, empathy, connecting knowing, feminist theory, subjectivity, ambiguity, and inconclusiveness.Plato recorded Socrates' teachings and carried on the tradition of critical thinking. Beyer (1995), critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments.Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance. The "first wave" of critical thinking is often referred to as a 'critical analysis' that is clear, rational thinking involving critique. During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged.It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities as well as a commitment to overcome native egocentrism The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato.Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight."First wave" logical thinking consisted of understanding the connections between two concepts or points in thought.It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker.