Essays On Constitutional Amendments

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This may be the case notwithstanding the fact that a special procedure is required to bring an amendment into force.

Thus, for example, in Ireland and Australia although amendments are drafted in the form of Acts of Parliament they cannot become law until they have been approved in a referendum.

The Constitution of Ethiopia can only be modified by a simple majority of the country's regions, and two-thirds majorities in both houses of the Federal Parliamentary Assembly.

Chapter 39 of the Constitution of Ethiopia cannot be amended.

As with any other Act of Parliament, by default an amendment comes into effect when it is published in the Government Gazette, but the text of the amendment may specify some other date of commencement, or allow the President to specify one by notice in the Gazette.

The Constitution of Brazil states various terms on how it can be amended.In most jurisdictions, amendments to a constitution take the form of revisions to the previous text.Thus, once an amendment has become law, portions of the original text may be deleted or new articles may be inserted among existing ones.A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a polity, organization or other type of entity.Amendments are often interwoven into the relevant sections of an existing constitution, directly altering the text.Examples of such special procedures include supermajorities in the legislature, or direct approval by the electorate in a referendum, or even a combination of two or more different special procedures.A referendum to amend the constitution may also be triggered in some jurisdictions by popular initiative.By contrast, in the United States a proposed amendment originates as a special joint resolution of Congress that does not require the President to sign and that the President can not veto.The manner in which constitutional amendments are finally recorded takes two main forms.The special procedures for the amendment of some constitutions have proven to be so exacting, that of proposed amendments either few (8 Amendments out of 44 proposed in Australia), or none (as in Japan) have been passed over a period of several decades. There are a number of formal differences, from one jurisdiction to another, in the manner in which constitutional amendments are both originally drafted and written down once they become law.In some jurisdictions, such as Ireland, Estonia, and Australia, constitutional amendments originate as bills and become laws in the form of acts of parliament.


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