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Although he disliked Rosenstock's continued attempts to convert him, the two remained in close contact.Rosenzweig inherited from his friend the idea of revelation as "orientation" in life, and devoted his first Jewish theological essay (Atheistische Theologie) to the idea of revelation, which went beyond what Rosenstock wrote and debated with Buber.After months of deep conversations, and especially the catastrophic conversation with Rosenstock during the night of July 7, 1913, Rosenzweig decided to convert.
The same year, he turned down an offer by Friedrich Meinecke to become a professional historian.
Instead, he desired to free himself from what he called "dead science" and from "mere cognition," so that he could enter into the flow of life, where real questions demand answers.
In his return to Judaism, Rosenzweig was supported primarily by Hermann Cohen, but also by people such as Rabbi Nehemiah Nobel, Martin Buber, Joseph Prager, and Eduard Strauss.
In 1920 he married Edith Hahn, and progressively observed the Jewish laws. Realizing that, as a returnee to Judaism, he could play a pivotal role in bringing Jews back to their roots, Rosenzweig became interested in Jewish education, and in 1920 was appointed director of the Freies Juedisches Lehrhaus, an institute of adult Jewish education in Frankfurt on the Main, in which the participants were invited to express their view on Jewish problems and to try to understand their identity.
His father Georg financially supported many charity institutions, including the Jewish community, but the family's adherence to Judaism was minimal.
In his youth, Franz came under the influence of his great-uncle, Adam Rosenzweig, a bachelor, an artist and a learned Jew, who lived in the Rosenzweig home and spent many hours with Franz.
It was not the books in themselves but rather the actual living encounter with other Jews that would create the opportunity to build Judaism.
In Rosenzweig's day, the dialogical method of learning was something novel, and at the universities it was completely absent. Practically, teaching now means being in interaction with the audience, certainly in informal adult education.
In the Lehrhaus, he used his talents not to write books, but to provide living answers to questions from the public, who were increasingly interested after the war in the return to Jewish faith.
According to Rosenzweig, the uniqueness of the Lehrhaus was in that people took part in conversations through questions and counter-questions.