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Its control structures included conditional IF statements, repetitive loops (so-called DO loops), and a GOTO statement that allowed nonsequential execution of program code.FORTRAN made it convenient to have subprograms for common mathematical operations, and built libraries of them.anguage) was designed by a committee of American and European computer scientists during 1958–60 for publishing algorithms, as well as for doing computations.Computer programming language, any of various languages for expressing a set of detailed instructions for a digital computer.
They were the first high-level languages.slation), designed in 1957 by an IBM team led by John Backus.
It was intended for scientific computations with real numbers and collections of them organized as one- or multidimensional arrays.
LISP also uses the list structure to represent data, and, because programs and data use the same structure, it is easy for a LISP program to operate on other programs as data.
LISP became a common language for artificial intelligence (AI) programming, partly owing to the confluence of LISP and AI work at MIT and partly because AI programs capable of “learning” could be written in LISP as self-modifying programs.
It uses short mnemonic codes for instructions and allows the programmer to introduce names for blocks of memory that hold data.
One might thus write “add pay, total” instead of “0110101100101000” for an instruction that adds two numbers.
This ability is important in systems programming, and C shares with assembly language the power to exploit all the features of a computer’s internal architecture.
C, along with its descendant C , remains one of the most common languages.record data structure for such tasks.
A LISP program is a function applied to data, rather than being a sequence of procedural steps as in FORTRAN and ALGOL.
LISP uses a very simple notation in which operations and their operands are given in a parenthesized list. Although this appears awkward, the notation works well for computers.