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 Violence is most common in large schools, and middle school students are the most likely targets of violent behavior. "The Relation Between Values and Social Competence in Early Adolescence." Developmental Psychology, 25, 458-464.  According to a joint report of the Departments of Education and Justice,  violent crime overall has declined since the early and mid-1990s. For example, the percentage of students who reported being victims of crime at school decreased from 10 percent in 1995 to 8 percent in 1999. Jaana Juvonen School shootings such as the one at Columbine High School in 1999 have left deep scars in our nation.
RAND examined the literature regarding these programs and found that only a handful have been evaluated, and even fewer have been deemed effective or even promising.
The goal of this paper is to describe the options that are currently available for schools.
These programs include: The sheer numbers of these programs can be daunting; there are over 200 institutional programs alone.
And the specific goals and foci of these approaches vary.
Metal detectors and searches of student lockers and book bags are not uncommon, especially in large urban middle and high schools.
Indeed, fewer weapons are confiscated with these measures in place than are confiscated without them, implying that students are bringing weapons to school less frequently.
 And children who view themselves as targets of bullying show high levels of anxiety and depression that impede their school performance. Finding from a National Study." Teachers College Record, 87, 356-373.
 Bullying and more serious violent behavior are not separate problems.
An analysis of the key components of various approaches in terms of their potential positive and negative effects can assist in the selection of policies, programs, and procedures while we wait for evaluations to be conducted.
FACTS ABOUT SCHOOL VIOLENCE School violence is not confined to urban schools; it is also prevalent in suburban schools.