The first excerpt is from a paper on the generic nature of America’s highway exit ramp services; the second is from a paper on shape constancy. Our eyes often receive pictures of the world that are contrary to physical reality. Normally you will not devote a separate section of the paper to this; in fact, often the thesis or objective is conveniently located either right at the beginning or right at the end of the Introduction.The observation struck me slowly, a growing sense of déjà vu. A pencil in a glass of water miraculously bends; railroad tracks converge in the distance. A good thesis statement fits only the paper in which it appears. ." Instead, concretely announce the most important elements of your topic and suggest your fundamental approach—even point us toward the paper’s conclusion if you can.
Beware of the temptation to open your final paragraph with "In conclusion," or "In summary," and then summarize the paper.
Instead, let your entire conclusion stand as a graceful termination of an argument.
Normally you are allowed and encouraged to use section headings to help both yourself and the reader follow the flow of the paper.
Always word your section headings clearly, and do not stray from the subject that you have identified within a section.
Often you are expected to supply a cover sheet giving the date, your name, the title of the paper, the class, and the professor’s name.
Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively throughout the text, and if there are a good number of them, then separate lists of tables and figures at the beginning of the paper may be expected.Significantly, exercise has been shown to increase bone mineral density in premenopausal women even after the teenage years, and it helps preserve the bone mass achieved in the following decades.There is also evidence that exercise adds a modest, yet significant amount of bone mass to the postmenopausal skeleton.When you are stuck for a conclusion, look back at your introduction; see if you can freshly reemphasize your objectives by outlining how they were met, or even revisit an opening scenario from the introduction in a new light to illustrate how the paper has brought about change.Your conclusion should not be a summary of the paper or a simple tacked-on ending, but a significant and logical realization of the paper’s goals.You should get your reader’s attention immediately by announcing the paper’s subject or by launching into a relevant scenario or narrative that informs or illustrates your overall argument.A paper illustrating the costly effects of poor mine design, for instance, might open with the scenario of how a poorly designed pillar at a salt mine in Louisiana once collapsed, fracturing the surface above and draining an entire lake into the mine.As examples of how creative an introduction can be, here are the opening lines from a geography paper and a paper on optics, both of which use narrative technique to arouse our interest.Note how the first excerpt uses an "I" narrator comfortably while the second excerpt does not use "I" even though the writer is clearly reflective about the subject matter. Most papers have outright thesis statements or objectives.Clearly, the title "An Overview of the Hydraulic Fracturing of Methane-Bearing Coal Formations" is more complete, satisfying, and informative than "Hydraulic Fracturing." The title is important because it announces the paper’s specific content and typically serves as a pathway to the paper’s thesis.Your introduction is your opportunity to be at your most individual.